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[奇摩部落格- Nobody's Home] Lou Adler專欄 2010/05/07 聘雇之誤誰之過?

聘雇之誤誰之過?

分類:Lou Adler專欄
2010/05/07 17:22


Who's to Blame for Hiring Mistakes?
聘雇之誤誰之過?

By Lou Adler / 譯者:Lynn Lee, Beatrice Lei                                  April 28, 2010
The Adler Group, President
What's a hiring mistake?
If you have low standards a hiring mistake is someone who gets terminated or quits during the first 3-6 months.  If you have high standards it's someone who isn't an achiever.  An achiever – typically a B+ or better person – is someone who delivers high-quality results on a consistent basis, deals effectively with all types of people, can take on bigger projects, and gets promoted into bigger roles.  To me, not hiring an achiever for most roles is a mistake.  For rank-and-file positions, not hiring someone who performs as well as those already in the top-third is also a mistake.  Not making these hiring mistakes is sure to improve your company's overall talent levels.
何謂聘僱失誤?
如果你是個對於聘雇採低標準者,你可以容許所雇用的人在三至六個月內離職或遭解聘。反之高標者則對於非成功者則不予聘雇。一位成功者他的基本績效通常為B+或更好  他會呈現一致性的高品質工作成果,能有效與各種類型的人共事,能承擔更大的任務,同時能晉升至重要的位階。對我而言,沒有能夠在每個聘僱職務中,聘僱到成功者是件錯誤的事。如果沒有聘雇績效為評比比率的前三分之一者,也是錯誤的事。如果少了這些錯誤聘僱,公司整體的人力水平將會因此提升。
When viewed from the above perspective, there are some common hiring mistakes that can be virtually eliminated with some talent-focused leadership from HR and the executive team.  Here's my short list of mistakes and some solutions.  Since I'm biased, you'll note a Performance-based Hiring theme to these solutions.  Whether you choose to go that route, or not, is less important than doing something that focuses on eliminating the backend mistakes, not just spending all of your resources on finding more candidates.
從上述觀點看,人力資源與管理部門可以使用一些方法去除常見的聘僱錯誤。以下是一些錯誤清單與解決方案。由於我的個人偏見,你會發現一些以績效為基準主題的解決方案。無論你選擇採用與否,重要的是去除聘僱後置作業的錯誤,而不是花費精力去找尋更多的職務候選人。
The Short List of Common Hiring Mistakes and Possible Solutions
常見的聘僱錯誤清單與解決對策
  1. Not enough good people to consider.  On one level this is a sourcing issue.  In this case it clearly falls in the lap of the recruiting department for failure.  On the other hand, if the company has weak leadership, a non-competitive comp plan, not enough recruiting resources, and a bad reputation, it's unlikely it will see enough good people, regardless of the strength of the recruiting department.  In this case a super strong HR/Recruiting leader would be required to turn around the department.  However, if the company's fortunes are reasonable, then the recruiting function just needs an overhaul.  You need to have a strong sourcing and recruiting strategy that drives enough top talent to the table in order to hire enough of them to go around.  When the supply of talent exceeds demand, this is easy to do, but won't be once the recovery begins.
缺乏優秀候選人。就某種層面言,此屬人才來源問題。在此狀況下,很明顯的是招募部門的失敗。但從另一個角度來看,如果公司屬於弱勢領導,無競爭優勢,沒有足夠的召募管道,加上不佳商譽。在以上狀況下是不可能吸引好的應徵者加入,而此狀況也無關招募部門的能力。然而如果公司的財務夠健全,就必須要整頓其招募部門。你必須要有一個好的招募策略,才能吸引足夠的優秀人選以供篩選。當人才供給大於需求時,要挑選優秀的人才便不是難事,但是要能達此目標卻不是一僦可成。
  1. The best person didn't get hired.  This is a frequent hiring mistake that seemingly falls on the hiring manager's shoulders.  Of course, you never know about this mistake, so assigning blame for something that didn't happen is tough to pull off.  So in this case I'll assign blame to the recruiters involved and the process used to compare candidates.  Most recruiters are too timid, and rarely fight for a strong candidate who they believe is stronger than the others, especially if the person does not have the exact background listed on the job description.  This problem is compounded by the informal decision-making process managers use to decide whom to hire among competing candidates.  Performance-based Hiring is a great solution for this with focus on how to use evidence vs. feelings to make the assessment.  (Here's an article for more on this topic.)
錯失聘雇最好的候選人。這顯然是聘僱經理常有的問題。當然,你很難去歸咎並判斷尚未出現的問題。因此在此情況下,我會傾向於將責任歸咎於招募過程中的招募者與招募的過程。大部分的招募者會對那些其認定的較佳候選人,怯於去挑戰其履歷內容中的確切背景資料。此問題常發生於經理人非正式的聘僱決策過程中。績效基準的聘僱方法是一項較佳的解決方案,此方式可聚焦於事證而非以感覺作為聘僱評估。
  1. A strong person was hired, but isn't working out for a variety of reasons.  This is a big disappointment, but usually attributed to hiring an achiever for the wrong job or lack of fit with the hiring manager.  Other reasons include an inability to work with the team or some type of personality and culture clash.  The job fit mistake is largely caused by not clarifying job expectations before the person was hired, resulting in hiring someone who is competent, but not motivated to do the work required.  This is an unconscionable mistake with fault totally assigned to the hiring manager.  It's easily corrected, though, with a little discipline.  Just require managers to prepare a performance profile before getting the requisition approved.  A performance profile summarizes the performance requirements of the job, not the skills required to do the work.  Many of these can address the team, culture, and managerial fit issues, minimizing these types of mistakes, as well.
聘僱了因種種原因無法勝任工作的優秀候選人。這絕對是令人失望的事,通常會歸咎於聘雇經理未將人才置於對的位置與工作。其他原因還有無法與團隊共事,以及不適應公司文化。此種工作適應性的錯誤,主要來自於在聘僱階段中,僅以能力而未以其工作動機來做評估,同時也沒有去澄清候選人對工作的期望。將此種聘僱錯誤完全歸咎於聘僱經理也是不公平的,只要我們用一些方法便可以改正此種缺失。將此職務需要達成的績效列出績效表,而不是此項職務所需的工作技能表。通常如此便可藉由列出的團隊、文化以及管理事項,來減少此種錯誤聘僱決策。
  1. The job was a lateral move for the candidate.  This is a variation of the "good person, wrong job" problem above, but with a different solution.  During an economic slowdown, the best people aren't looking, and those that are have lowered their acceptance standards.  During a recovery, the best people are all looking for career moves, but are often swayed by a big jump in compensation or a "grass is greener" promise.  Once on the job, however, sometimes the grass turns out to be just another shade of brown.  Formally implementing a career decision process for candidates to use when comparing their opportunities can ensure that the person is evaluating your position as a real career move.  (Here's a related article.  Also, email us if you'd like to see a demo of this process.)  This will not only prevent the lateral move problem, but also allow the company to hire more top people for the right reasons, not compensation and half-baked pie-in-the-sky promises.
此職務是候選人工作的平移異動。這是所謂的“優秀者、錯誤工作”的問題,也有不同的解決方案。在經濟衰退期,優秀的人才通常沒有在找工作,而找工作的那些人也會降低自己的接受度標準。反之在經濟復甦期,優秀的人才都在尋找新的職涯契機,通常其薪酬也會有大的躍升,或者是更有契機(綠色草坪)的工作承諾。然而綠地也是源於另一片受陰影遮蓋的荒地。與候選人討論其職涯發展的過程來評估其機會與發展,可以確認此職務是否是候選人所願意選擇的職務異動。此不僅可以避免候選人對於工作平移異動疑慮,也可以讓公司用好的理由來聘僱較佳的人選,而不是以薪酬和不切實際的承諾來聘僱優秀人才。
  1. A weak candidate was hired due to an improper assessment.  Sometimes weak people get hired because there was no one else available at the time.  More often a bottom-half person gets hired because the selection process was flawed.  This is attributed to three fundamental causes.  One, a decision was quickly made based on first impressions, intuition, or gut feelings.  Two, managers overvalued technical skills at the expense of delivering results on a consistent basis.  Three, managers and those on the hiring team made a flawed judgment based on their personal needs and biases in combination with a mix of semi-valid interviewing techniques.  Implementing Performance-based Hiring will eliminate these problems.  (Here's an article about the assessment process that will validate this claim.)
不正確的評估聘僱的能力不足的候選人。有時會因為聘僱時段,沒有合適的候選人而聘僱了能力較差的人選。通常也會因為招募過程的瑕疵,而聘雇了後半段績效的員工。此歸因於三種基本原因,第一以第一印象以及直覺所做的快速聘僱決定;第二聘雇經理偏執的高估技術性能力而忽略了成果的達成;第三聘雇經理與招募團隊以其個別需求和偏見,以及不成熟的面談技巧,所決議出的瑕疵決策。以績效基準聘僱方式可以減少此等問題。
  1. Weak managers can't hire strong people.  Top people don't want to work for someone who isn't a leader or can't be a mentor.  In this case a performance profile, the use of an exploratory interview, and intervention by a more senior-level manager can help.  Adding a formal "raising the talent bar" process can minimize some of this by making the hiring decision more team-based.  In this way weaker hiring managers aren't making the decision on whom to hire alone, and the candidate has other people to seek out for career advice.
能力不足的經理無法聘僱優秀的人才。優秀的人才不願意與能力不足的領導者或無法成為自己導師者共事。在此情況下,可用績效表與探究式面談方法,以及請資深經理人的參與來協助。由聘僱團隊加入人才評鑑項目,共同形成聘僱決策來減少無法聘僱優秀人才的現象。能力不足的聘僱經理在此時並無法單獨行使聘僱決策,而候選人對於此職務的職涯發展,可以經由其他招募團隊成員協助提供。
If you have more than two or three of these problems, the root cause is systemic, probably the lack of an end-to-end hiring process.  In this case, implementing Performance-based Hiring can have an enormous impact on improving your company's ability to consistently hire top people across the board.  Following are the steps involved.  Most are common sense.  As you review the list you'll discover that none of the ideas are profound or hard to implement.  What's hard to do is getting every manager and recruiter to do them every time.
如果你有兩到三個以上的問題,有可能是缺乏一個整體性的聘僱流程。在此狀況下,實施以績效基準的招募方法,將會有效提升公司對於招聘優秀人才的能力。以下為相關實施步驟。當你逐一審視時,你會發現這些多為基本觀念,並沒有任何艱深或難以實施的項目。難以施行的是,如何讓聘僱經理與召募工作者每一次都能確實的執行。

  1. Don't rely totally on skills-based job descriptions.  Instead, have managers clearly define what the person will be doing on the job before the req is approved.  As part of this include how the person's performance will be measured.
不要完全依賴以技能為基準的職務說明。相反的,在核准職務職缺前,讓經理人仔細定義出此職位的工作者的工作內容為何,以及此職務的績效將如何來做評估。
  1. Use the assessment to determine if the person has performed the tasks at the standards described.  If you do this, you'll discover that the person has exactly the skills and experience needed to be successful.  This will be slightly different for everyone.
利用評鑑工具來確認該員在執行任務時能否達到所需標準。如果你這麼做,你會發現其擁有的技能及工作經驗能否符合我們的需求。但每個人呈現出的結果大致上會略有不同。
  1. Don't use job descriptions to write recruiting advertising.  It's better if you prepare career-oriented ads that focus on what the person can learn, do, and become.
不要使用職務說明內容來繕寫徵人啟事。最好是能提出職涯導向及未來的願景的廣告內容。
  1. Provide candidates with a decision tool to compare jobs based on their short- and long-term merits (e.g., job stretch, growth, team, comp, work/life balance, etc.).  If you give this to them right after the phone screen, they can use it to ask questions and gather the right information to make a reasoned career decision.
提供候選人一個決策工具,作為其短期與長期工作基礎的評估比較 (例如:工作延展性、成長性、團隊成員、工作與生活的平衡等等)。如果你在電話篩選面談後,能提供此類的相關資料。他們可以用這些資料來提出問題,並有此正確訊息可供其做理性的職涯抉擇。
  1. Systematize the evaluation and comparison among candidates by using a formal evidence-based assessment process based on all job factors (e.g., technical, team, motivation, growth trend, consistency of results, problem-solving, fit, etc.).  As part of this eliminate yes/no voting with a requirement that evidence is shared in an open forum.
用工作事證為基礎評估程序,以系統化方式評估與比較所有候選人。(例如:技能、團隊能力、激勵、成長曲線、成果的一致性、解決問題能力、適應力等以公開討論以及證據分享的方式,來排除是或否的投票方式。

While this list of mistakes is not complete, nor the solutions proposed the only ones available, the idea of focusing on eliminating mistakes can have a profound impact on overall hiring results.  The problem with most companies is segmenting the mistakes, rather than working on them at the system level.  This is the underlying benefit of Performance-based Hiring.  It started out as a means to eliminate hiring mistakes, and in the process it ended up as system to hire top talent.  In my book, Hire With Your Head, I describe how to do this, step-by-step, with specific case studies.  This should be enough to get you started, but email me if you'd like to learn more.
雖然這份錯誤清單並不完整,也不是唯一的可行解決方案,但對於重點聚焦在消除錯誤方式的觀念上,可以對整體聘僱的結果有較深的影響。大多數公司寧願將問題逐一缺割,而不願系統化的處理問題,這是績效基準方式的基本效益。它以排除錯誤聘僱的方法為開端,並以系統化的方法為結束,用來聘僱頂尖人才。

The Adler Group Team

Reprinted from The Adler Group with permission from Lou Adler, author of Hire With Your Head. All rights reserved.