2013年9月5日 星期四

[奇摩部落格- Nobody's Home] Lou Adler專欄 2010/04/30 使用探索式面談以及視訊工具來排除四大聘僱錯誤

使用探索式面談以及視訊工具來排除四大聘僱錯誤

分類:Lou Adler專欄
2010/04/30 06:37


Using the Exploratory Interview and Video to Eliminate the Four Deadly Hiring Sins
使用探索式面談以及視訊工具來排除四大聘僱錯誤
By Lou Adler   / 譯者: Lynn Lee                April 22, 2010

From my observations, hiring manager interviewing mistakes fall into these big buckets:
  • Overvaluing first impressions and hiring those who are more talkers than performers, and not hiring top people who were temporarily nervous.
  • Overvaluing gut feelings (a.k.a., intuition).  This results in hiring people who are good at some things – like communicating and planning – but not everything, like delivering high-quality results on time.
  • Focusing narrowly on technical skills, which results in hiring people who might be technically brilliant, but who can't work with non-techies, and/or have no clue about meeting commitments, and/or are poorly organized, and/or don't fit with the culture.
  • Assuming everybody should be excited about the job, even those top performers who are not looking or who have multiple opportunities.  The best candidates then voluntarily opt out because the manager came across as unprofessional.

在我過往的觀察中,用人經理在面談中的錯誤大致有下列幾項:
  • 高估了面談時的第一印象,以至於聘雇了擅於健談而非優績效者,而非聘僱因臨場緊張導致失常的高績效者。
  • 高估了直覺反應(又稱為直覺),結果導致聘僱了擅長某些事項  如擅於溝通與計畫  但卻非全能者,例如無法如期達成高品質要求。
  • 狹隘的關注於技術性能力,導致所聘僱的人選可能是技術頂尖者,但是卻無法與非技術人員共事,或許無法了解所交付的任務,也可能缺乏組織能力,或與企業文化不符。
  • 假想每個人都對於此工作有極度興趣,即令那些優秀的應徵者對此工作並無意願或同時擁有多項選擇機會。於是這些優秀的應徵者會因為聘僱經理人的不專業而選擇自動退出。

All of these false positives (hiring someone you shouldn't) and false negatives (not hiring someone you should) can be eliminated by having the hiring manager use a structured career-oriented exploratory interview in combination with video before proceeding down a path towards mediocrity.
聘僱經理可以經由結構式的職涯探索式面談以及視訊工具,來排除這些不實的正面效應(雇用了你不該聘僱的人),以及不實的負面現象(沒有僱用你該雇用的人)

The exploratory interview is the more important aspect of this new process.  If someone is not looking, the focus of the first meeting must change to an open discussion about the career potential of the position, rather than the hiring manager assessing the person's ability to do the work.  Most managers aren't very good at this part.
探索式面談(exploratory interview)是此新程序中較重要的一環。如果應徵者並無找工作的意願,則聘雇經理在面談之初,便不須評估此應徵者的能力是否符合此份工作,而是在討論此職務的職涯潛能。而大多數的聘僱經理並不擅長於此。

Here are the steps involved in this exploratory interview process:
以下是使用探索式面談過程的幾個重點:

          1. Opening.  Clearly state that this is an exploratory interview to determine if the open 
          job offers the candidate a career move.  This is a critical statement, since it shifts the
          interview from investigatory to collaborative.  Then describe the process you'll use to
          conduct the conversation.  The steps are described below, but basically it consists of a
          back and forth sharing of information.

開場。開宗明義的說明此為探索式面談方式,是用來確定此職務是否能提供應徵者合適的職涯異動。這是一個關鍵說詞,因為這將使面談由審查轉為合作的關係。接著解釋你將要進行的流程為何。以下為這些步驟的敘述,基本上它包括相互來回的資訊分享。

2. Quick review of the candidate's background and career focus.  Ask the candidate what she's looking for career-wise, how long she's been looking, and why her current job is less satisfying.  Also find out what other positions the person is considering.  Then spend five minutes reviewing the candidate's current job in some detail, focusing on span of control, impact made, and overall responsibility.  You'll gain a sense of fit from this.

快速檢閱應徵者的背景與工作經歷。詢問應徵者對於尋找工作的想法,他()已經花了多久時間找工作,為何她()對於目前的工作不滿意。同時了解還有哪種工作職務是他會考慮的。然後以五分鐘的時間詳細檢閱此人目前工作內容,尤其在控制的幅度多寡,影響度所及,總責任範圍部分。你將會由這些部分感受到此人是否符合職務所需。

3. Quick review of the job and career opportunity.  Provide the candidate a high-level view of the job, why it's important, and the impact it could have on the company.  If obvious, highlight the possible areas of growth for the candidate based on the person's resume and what was just discussed.

快速檢閱此份工作的機會與發展。對應徵者提出此份工作的遠景與重要性,同時對公司可能產生的影響力。如果由應徵者的履歷表或先前討論的內容,可明顯看得出來時,便可以特別強調其可以獲致成長的部份。

4. Conduct a short work history review.  Assuming there's mutual interest start reviewing the candidate's background in some detail.  Just get highlights at first, looking for evidence of the achiever pattern.  Focus on possible gaps in the candidate's background where there appears to be opportunities for growth (e.g., bigger team, more learning, bigger budget, more impact, faster growing company/industry).

進行簡短的工作歷史回顧。假設雙方有意願對應徵者的背景多加了解。便可在一開始就提出,請見上篇「高績效者鑑別術」。將議題集中在應徵者工作經歷上,能凸顯特別成長的階段(例如:有較大的團隊、較多的學習、較多的預算、更多的影響力、快速成長的公司或產業)

5. If a reasonable fit, describe the next steps, being semi-positive, but introduce some areas of stretch.  Shift the conversation a bit, describing what you like about the candidate and areas where the job could offer some stretch.  Ask if the candidate finds this appealing in comparison to other opportunities the candidate is considering.  If so, suggest you'd like to dig in a little more to see if the person has the potential to handle a bigger job at this time and if there is a good cultural fit.  It's important to make this shift since the conversation now moves from a dialogue among equals to more of a standard evaluation interview.

如果在合理的適配情況下,可用半積極與延展性的介紹方式,進行下一個階段。 此時你的談話內容可轉為,你對應徵者欣賞的部分有哪些,而此職務可提供的發展為何。詢問應徵者此職務是否較其他工作機會有吸引力。如果是的話,建議你要深入了解應徵者是否有潛力勝任較高的工作,以及是否合於企業文化。在此時此話題的轉換是重要的,因為此時已經由等向的對話,轉為評價式面談。

6. More detailed job fit assessment.  Describe a major job challenge and ask the candidate to describe her most comparable accomplishment.  This is my one-question interview with fact-finding.  Spend 10 minutes on this to see if the candidate is a contender, meaning the person is an achiever and has accomplished something reasonable in scope.  If so, describe some of the growth opportunities in the job – often these are the gaps in the person's background that your opening fills in – and ask if she's interested in proceeding.

更詳盡的工作適性評鑑。 描述工作上主要的挑戰,同時請應徵者敘述其曾有過的成就。此時可用十分鐘的時間來檢視應徵者是否是個贏家,是否曾在合理的範疇內完成某些成就。如果是的話,描述此項職缺可提供的成長機會  通常這些要能補足其經驗中所欠缺的部分  然後請問他是否對這些事項有興趣。

7. Allow for candidate questions.  Ask the candidate what criteria she's going to use to compare positions in general and what things she would want to know about your open position in particular.  Answer a few of the big ones, but don't oversell.  Find out the person's timing regarding a move.

請應徵者提出問題。詢問應徵者哪些是他一般用來做比較的準則,以及還有哪些他想了解的部份。回答其主要的問題,但勿誇大其詞,找出其想異動的時間點。

8. Recruiting and next steps.  Instead of rushing to a close, tell the candidate that you're impressed with her background, but that you have some other strong candidates to also consider.  Ask her if she believes the job as described represents a career move, especially in comparison to others she's considering, and if she would like to come back for a more detailed interview.

聘僱與下一步。 不要急著做出聘僱的動作。告訴應徵者你對於他的經歷印象深刻,但是你還有其他人選也必須考慮。詢問其是否認為此職務與其他的工作機會比較,是否會考慮為轉職的工作考量。同時若有需要他是否願意再來做第二次面談。

You can conduct this type of interview over the phone, but adding video adds an important dimension.  Most important, when you actually meet the candidate the impact of the person's first impression will largely be neutralized.  From the candidate's perspective, she'll be coming in ready to sell herself as to why she's a great fit for a possible career move.
你可以用電話面談來進行此種型態的面談,但是加上視訊工具會是個重要的項目。很重要的是,當你實際與應徵者面對面時,第一印象會影響甚或瓦解面談的結果。而站在應徵者的立場,他已經準備好要來推銷自己,並證明自己是此職務的最佳人選。
Starting the conversation with a hot prospect about a possible career move rather than a standard interview represents a shift in approach that great managers use all of the time.  All managers need to do the same thing if they want to hire more top performers.  It starts by recognizing that the best people are only willing to enter into the hiring process when there is the possibility of a career move at the other end.  The exploratory interview is a great way to prove it.

好的經理人對於有興趣的候選人,常以此職務可能性發展的話題為面談的開場,而不是用標準的面談流程。聘僱經理希望能聘僱到優秀的應徵者也需多用此種方式。首先必須承認的是,對優秀的應徵者來說,要有好的職涯發展機會,才會考慮進行聘僱程序。探索式面談是一種可以用來印證的絕佳方式。

The Adler Group Team
Reprinted from The Adler Group with permission from Lou Adler, author of Hire With Your Head. All rights reserved.